• Targeting π-Conjugated Multiple Donor–Acceptor Motifs Exemplified by Tetrathiafulvalene-Linked Quinoxalines and Tetrabenz[bc,ef,hi,uv]ovalenes: Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Electrochemical, and Theoretical Characterization
    H.-P. Jia, J. Ding, Y.-F. Ran, S.-X. Liu, C. Blum, I. Petkova, A. Hauser and S. Decurtins
    Chemistry - An Asian Journal, 6 (12) (2011), p3312-3321
    DOI:10.1002/asia.201100515 | unige:18010 | Abstract | Article PDF
An efficient synthetic approach to a symmetrically functionalized tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative with two diamine moieties, 2-[5,6-diamino-4,7-bis(4-pentylphenoxy)-1,3-benzodithiol-2-ylidene]-4,7-bis(4-pentylphenoxy)-1,3-benzodithiole-5,6-diamine (2), is reported. The subsequent Schiff-base reactions of 2 afford large π-conjugated multiple D–A arrays, for example the triad 2-[4,9-bis(4-pentylphenoxy)-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-g]quinoxalin-2-ylidene]-4,9-bis(4-pentylphenoxy)-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-g]quinoxaline (8) and the corresponding tetrabenz[bc,ef,hi,uv]ovalene-fused pentad 1, in good yields and high purity. The novel redox-active nanographene 1 is so far the largest known TTF-functionalized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with a well-resolved 1H NMR spectrum. The electrochemically highly amphoteric pentad 1 and triad 8 exhibit various electronically excited charge-transfer states in different oxidation states leading to intense optical intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) absorbances over a wide spectral range. The chemical and electrochemical oxidations of 1 result in an unprecedented TTF•+ radical cation dimerization, leading to the formation of [1•+]2 at room temperature in solution due to the stabilizing effect arising from strong π–π interactions. Moreover, ICT fluorescence is observed with large solvent-dependent Stokes shifts and quantum efficiencies of 0.05 for 1 and 0.035 for 8 in CH2Cl2.



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