• Analysis of first order reversal curves in the thermal hysteresis of spin-crossover nanoparticles within the mechanoelastic model
    L. Stoleriu, A. Stancu, P. Chakraborty, A. Hauser and C. Enachescu
    Journal of Applied Physics, 117B (2015), p307
    DOI:10.1063/1.4914953 | unige:55062 | Article HTML | Article PDF
The recently obtained spin-crossover nanoparticles are possible candidates for applications in the recording media industry as materials for data storage, or as pressure and temperature sensors. For these applications, the intermolecular interactions and interactions between spin-crossover nanoparticles are extremely important, as they may be essential factors in triggering the transition between the two stable phases: the high-spin and low-spin ones. In order to find correlations between the distributions in size and interactions and the transition temperatures distribution, we apply the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method, using simulations based on a mechanoelastic model applied to 2D triangular lattices composed of molecules linked by springs and embedded in a surfactant. We consider two Gaussian distributions: one is the size of the nanoparticles and another is the elastic interactions between edge spin-crossover molecules and the surfactant molecules. In order to disentangle the kinetic and non-kinetic parts of the FORC distributions, we compare the results obtained for different temperature sweeping rates. We also show that the presence of few larger particles in a distribution centered around much smaller particles dramatically increases the hysteresis width.
  • Light-induced spin-state switching in the mixed crystal series of the 2D coordination network {[Zn1-xFex(bbtr)3](BF4)2}: optical spectroscopy and cooperative effects
    P. Chakraborty, C. Enachescu, A. Humair, L. Egger, T. Delgado, A. Tissot, L. Gune, C. Besnard, R. Bronisz and A. Hauser
    Dalton Transactions, 43 (47) (2014), p17786-17796
    DOI:10.1039/C4DT01728E | unige:42340 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
 
Depending on the iron(II) concentration, the mixed crystals of {[Zn1-xFex(bbtr)3](BF4)2}∞, bbtr = 1,4-di(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)butane, 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 1, show macroscopic light-induced bistability between the high-spin and the low-spin state. In the highly diluted system with x = 0.01 and up to x = 0.31, the photoinduced low-spin state always relaxes back to the high-spin state independent of the initial light-induced low-spin fraction. In the highly concentrated mixed crystals with x = 0.67, 0.87 and 1, the strong cooperative effects coupled to a crystallographic phase transition result in light-induced bistability with decreasing critical light-induced low-spin fraction and increasing hysteresis width for increasing iron(II) concentrations. The lower limit for the light-induced bistability is estimated at x ≈ 0.5.
  
Light-induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) in iron(II) spin-crossover compounds, i.e., the light-induced population of the high-spin (S=2) state below the thermal transition temperature, was discovered thirty years ago. For irradiation into metal-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands of the low-spin (S=0) species the acknowledged sequence takes the system from the initially excited 1MLCT to the high-spin state via the 3MLCT state within ~150 fs, thereby bypassing low-lying ligand-field (LF) states. Nevertheless, these play role, as borne out by the observation of LIESST and reverse-LIESST on irradiation directly into the LF bands for systems with only high-energy MLCT states. Herein we elucidate the ultrafast reverse-LIESST pathway by identifying the lowest energy S=1 LF state as intermediate state with a lifetime of 39 ps for the light-induced high-spin to low-spin conversion on irradiation into the spin-allowed LF transition of the high-spin species in the NIR.
  • Light Induced Bistability in the 2D Coordination Network {[Fe(bbtr)3](BF4)2}: Wavelength-Selective Addressing of Molecular Spin States
    P. Chakraborty, S. Pillet, E.-E. Bendeif, C. Enachescu, R. Bronisz and A. Hauser
    Chemistry - A European Journal, 19 (34) (2013), p11418-11428
    DOI:10.1002/chem.201301257 | unige:29524 | Abstract | Article PDF
 
Whereas the neat polymeric Fe(II) compound {[Fe(bbtr)3](ClO4)2} (bbtr=1,4-di(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)butane) shows an abrupt spin transition centered at 107 K facilitated by a crystallographic symmetry breaking, in the covalently linked 2D coordination network of {[Fe(bbtr)3](BF4)2}, Fe(II) stays in the high-spin state down to 10 K. However, strong cooperative effects of elastic origin result in reversible, persistent and wavelength-selective photoswitching between the low-spin and high-spin manifolds. This compound thus shows true light-induced bistability below 100 K. The persistent bidirectional optical switching behavior is discussed as a function of temperature, irradiation time and intensity. Crystallographic studies reveal a photo-induced symmetry breaking and serve to establish the correlation between structure and cooperative effects. The static and kinetic behavior is explicated within the framework of the mean-field approximation.
  • Determination of the molecular structure of the short-lived light-induced high-spin state in the spin-crossover compound [Fe(6-mepy)3tren](PF6)2
    P. Chakraborty, A. Tissot, L. Peterhans, L. Gune, C. Besnard, P. Pattison and A. Hauser
    Physical Review B, 87 (21) (2013), p214306
    DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.87.214306 | unige:28964 | Abstract | Article PDF
In the spin-crossover compound [Fe(6-mepy)3tren](PF6)2, (6-mepy)3tren = tris{4-[(6-methyl)-2-pyridyl]-3-aza-butenyl}amine, the high-spin state can be populated as metastable state below the thermal transition temperature via irradiation into the metal to ligand charge transfer absorption band of the low-spin species. At 10 K, the lifetime of this metastable state is only 1 s. Despite this, it is possible to determine an accurate excited state structure by following the evolution of relevant structural parameters by synchrotron X-ray diffraction under continuous irradiation with increasing intensity. The difference in metal-ligand bond length between the high-spin and the low-spin state is found to be 0.192 Å obtained from an analysis of the experimental data using the mean-field approximation to model cooperative effects.
A switch in time: A fast precipitation technique was used to prepare 75 nm FeII spin-crossover nanocrystals. Their photoswitching dynamics, based on the light-induced excited spin-state trapping effect, has been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. A significant variation of the switching proprieties is observed compared to similar but amorphous nanoparticles.
  
  • Analysis of the Experimental Data for Pure and Diluted [FexZn1–x(bbtr)3](ClO4)2 Spin-Crossover Solids in the Framework of a Mechanoelastic Model
    P. Chakraborty, C. Enachescu and A. Hauser
    European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2013 (5-6) (2013), p770-780
    DOI:10.1002/ejic.201201193 | unige:26499 | Abstract | Article PDF
The mechanoelastic model is applied to reproduce the experimental relaxation and thermal transition curves as determined for crystals of pure and diluted {[FexZn1–x(bbtr)3](ClO4)2} [bbtr = 1,4-di(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)butane] spin-crossover systems. In the mechanoelastic model, the spin-crossover complexes are situated in a hexagonal planar lattice, which is similar to the 2D coordination polymer with (3,6) network topology of [Fe(bbtr)3](ClO4)2. These complexes are linked by springs, which simulate the elastic interactions between them. Owing to the change in volume of the complexes during the spin transition, an elastic force accompanies the switch of every complex. This force propagates through the entire lattice and causes a shift of all molecules in the system and thus results in a new nuclear configuration. First, the ability of the model to reproduce various shapes of thermal transition and relaxation curves in pure compounds is analyzed; these range from gradual to very steep and include hysteresis behavior for the former and from single exponential to sigmoidal or with several steps for the latter. A structural phase transition can also be accounted for by changing the shape of the sample at a fixed temperature from a regular to an elongated hexagon. Furthermore, the effect of adding Zn as a dopant in a mixed crystal series is discussed. The role of dopants on the cluster evolution is also analyzed directly and by using the correlation factor.
  • Heteroleptic FeII Complexes of 2,2′-Biimidazole and Its Alkylated Derivatives: Spin-Crossover and Photomagnetic Behavior
    H.V. Phan, P. Chakraborty, M. Chen, Y.M. Calm, K. Kovnir, L.K. Keniley, J.M. Hoyt, E.S. Knowles, C. Besnard, M.W. Meisel, A. Hauser, C. Achim and M. Shatruk
    Chemistry - A European Journal, 18 (49) (2012), p15805-15815
    DOI:10.1002/chem.201202045 | unige:24449 | Abstract | Article PDF
 
Three iron(II) complexes, [Fe(TPMA)(BIM)](ClO4)2⋅0.5H2O (1), [Fe(TPMA)(XBIM)](ClO4)2 (2), and [Fe(TPMA)(XBBIM)](ClO4)2 ⋅0.75CH3OH (3), were prepared by reactions of FeII perchlorate and the corresponding ligands (TPMA=tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, BIM=2,2′-biimidazole, XBIM=1,1′-(α,α′-o-xylyl)-2,2′-biimidazole, XBBIM=1,1′-(α,α′-o-xylyl)-2,2′-bibenzimidazole). The compounds were investigated by a combination of X-ray crystallography, magnetic and photomagnetic measurements, and Mössbauer and optical absorption spectroscopy. Complex 1 exhibits a gradual spin crossover (SCO) with T1/2=190 K, whereas 2 exhibits an abrupt SCO with approximately 7 K thermal hysteresis (T1/2=196 K on cooling and 203 K on heating). Complex 3 is in the high-spin state in the 2–300 K range. The difference in the magnetic behavior was traced to differences between the inter- and intramolecular interactions in 1 and 2. The crystal packing of 2features a hierarchy of intermolecular interactions that result in increased cooperativity and abruptness of the spin transition. In 3, steric repulsion between H atoms of one of the pyridyl substituents of TPMA and one of the benzene rings of XBBIM results in a strong distortion of the FeII coordination environment, which stabilizes the high-spin state of the complex. Both 1 and 2 exhibit a photoinduced low-spin to high-spin transition (LIESST effect) at 5 K. The difference in the character of intermolecular interactions of 1 and 2 also manifests in the kinetics of the decay of the photoinduced high-spin state. For 1, the decay rate constant follows the single-exponential law, whereas for 2 it is a stretched exponential, reflecting the hierarchical nature of intermolecular contacts. The structural parameters of the photoinduced high-spin state at 50 K are similar to those determined for the high-spin state at 295 K. This study shows that N-alkylation of BIM has a negligible effect on the ligand field strength. Therefore, the combination of TPMA and BIM offers a promising ligand platform for the design of functionalized SCO complexes.
  
  • Thermal and Light-Induced Spin Switching Dynamics in the 2D Coordination Network of {[Zn1-xFex(bbtr)3](ClO4)2}: The Role of Cooperative Effects
    P. Chakraborty, C. Enachescu, C. Walder, R. Bronisz and A. Hauser
    Inorganic Chemistry, 51 (18) (2012), p9714-9722
    DOI:10.1021/ic301006c | unige:22920 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
The thermal spin transition, the photoexcitation, and the subsequent spin relaxation in the mixed crystal series of the covalently linked two-dimensional network {[Zn1-xFex(bbtr)3](ClO4)2} (x = 0.02–1, bbtr =1,4-di(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-butane) are discussed. In the neat compound, the thermal spin transition with a hysteresis of 13 K is accompanied by a crystallographic phase transition (Kusz, J.; Bronisz, R.; Zubko, M.; Bednarek, H. Chem. Eur. J.201117, 6807). In contrast, the diluted crystals with x ≤ 0.1 stay essentially in the high-spin state down to low temperatures and show typical first order relaxation kinetics upon photoexcitation, and the structural phase transition is well separated from the spin transition. With increasing Fe(II) concentration, steeper thermal transitions and sigmoidal relaxation curves indicate increasingly important cooperative effects. Already at x = 0.38, the spin relaxation is governed by cooperative interactions between Fe(II) centers, and the crystallographic phase transition begins to influence the spin transition. The kinetic behavior of the thermal spin transition is reproduced within the framework of a dynamic mean-field model.
 
In the covalently linked 2D coordination network {[Fe(bbtr)3](BF4)2}, bbtr = 1,4-di(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)butane, the iron(II) centers stay in the high-spin (HS) state down to 10 K. They can, however, be quantitatively converted to the low-spin (LS) state by irradiating into the near-IR spin allowed 5dd band and back again by irradiating into the visible 1dd band. The compound shows true light-induced bistability below 100 K, thus, having the potential for persistent bidirectional optical switching at elevated temperatures.
  
  • Thermal hysteresis in spin-crossover compounds studied within the mechanoelastic model and its potential application to nanoparticles
    C. Enachescu, P. Chakraborty, L. Stoleriu, A. Stancu and A. Hauser
    Physical Review B, 84 (13) (2011), p134102
    DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.134102 | unige:17482 | Abstract | Article PDF
The recently developed mechanoelastic model is applied to characterize the thermal transition in spin-crossover complexes, with special attention given to the case of spin-crossover nanoparticles. In a two-dimensional system, hexagonal-shaped samples with open boundary conditions are composed of individual molecules that are linked by springs and can switch between two states, namely, the high-spin (HS) and the low-spin (LS) states. The switching of an individual molecule during the spin transition is decided by way of a Monte Carlo standard procedure, using transition probabilities depending on the temperature, the energy gap between the two states, the enthalpy difference, the degeneracy ratio, and the local pressure determined by the elongation or compression of its closest springs. The influence of external parameters, such as temperature sweeping rate and pressure, or intrinsic features of the system, such as the value of its spring constant, on the width of the thermal hysteresis, its shape, and its position are discussed. The particular case of spin-crossover nanoparticles is treated by considering them embedded into a polymer environment, which essentially affects the molecules situated at the edges and faces by decreasing their transition probabilities from HS to LS. Finally, the pressure hysteresis, obtained by varying the external pressure at constant temperature is discussed.
  • Low-Spin→High-Spin Relaxation Dynamics in the Highly Diluted Spin-Crossover System [FexZn1−x(bbtr)3](ClO4)2
    I. Krivokapic, P. Chakraborty, C. Enachescu, R. Bronisz and A. Hauser
    Inorganic Chemistry, 50 (5) (2011), p1856-1861
    DOI:10.1021/ic102269y | unige:14980 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
 
Whereas the neat polymeric iron(II) compound [Fe(bbtr)3](ClO4)2, bbtr = 1,4-di(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)butane, shows a quantitative spin transition triggered by a crystallographic phase transition centered at 107 K with a 13 K wide hysteresis, the iron(II) complexes in the diluted mixed crystals [FexZn1−x(bbtr)3](ClO4)2x = 0.02 and 0.1, stay predominantly in the 5T2 high-spin state down to cryogenic temperatures. However, the 1A1 low-spin state can be populated as metastable state via irradiation into the spin-allowed 5T25E ligand-field transition of the high-spin species in the near-infrared. The quantum efficiency of the light-induced conversion is approximately 10% at low temperatures and decreases rapidly above 160 K. The lifetime of the light-induced low-spin state decreases from 15 days at 40 K to 30 ns at 220 K, that is, by 14 orders of magnitude. In the high-temperature regime the activation energy for the low-spinhigh-spin relaxation is 1840(20) cm−1.
  • Significant variation of the singlet-quintet intersystem crossing rate constant in an iron(II) high-spin complex as a function of temperature
    I. Krivokapic, P. Chakraborty, R. Bronisz, C. Enachescu and A. Hauser
    Angewandte Chemie, 49 (45) (2010), p8509-8512
    DOI:10.1002/anie.201004500 | unige:14713
In the dilute mixed-crystal system [Zn1−xFex(bbtr)3](ClO4)2, x=2 % (bbtr=1,4-di(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)butane), the iron(II) centers are predominantly in the high-spin state. The low-spin state can be populated as a metastable state by irradiation with near-IR light; the rate constant of the low-spin→high-spin relaxation spans 14 orders of magnitude between 40 and 220 K

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