Introduction of heterocycles in the helical skeleton of helicenes allows modulation of their redox, chiroptical and photophysical properties. Herein, we describe the straightforward preparation and structural characterization by single crystal X-ray diffraction of thiadiazole-[7]helicene, which has been resolved into (M) and (P) enantiomers by chiral HPLC, together with its S-shaped double [4]helicene isomer, as well as the smaller congeners thiadiazole-[5]helicene and benzothiadiazole-anthracene. A copper(II) complex with two thiadiazole-[5]helicene ligands has been structurally characterized and it shows the presence of both (M) and (P) isomers coordinated to the metal centre. The emission properties of the unprecedented heterohelicenes are highly dependent on the helical turn, as the [7]- and [5]helicene are poorly emissive, whereas their isomers, that is, the S-shaped double [4]helicene and thiadiazole-benzanthracene, are luminescent, with quantum efficiencies of 5.4% and 6.5%, respectively. DFT calculations suggest a quenching of the luminescence of enantiopure [7]helicenes through an intersystem crossing mechanism arising from the relaxed excited S1 state.
Bis(thiomethyl)- and bis(thiohexyl)-tetrathiafulvalene-bromo-benzothiadiazoles, containing electron donor tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and electron acceptor benzothiadiazole (BTD) units, have been prepared by Stille coupling reactions between the TTF-SnMe3 precursors and BTD-Br2. In another series of experiments, TTF-acetylene-BTD compounds have been synthesized by Sonogashira coupling between either TTF-acetylenes and BTD-Br2 in low yields, or TTF-iodine and BTD-acetylene in moderate yields. In the compound TTF-C≡C-BTD the TTF and BTD units are coplanar in the solid state, as shown by the single crystal X-ray structure, and there is segregation in the packing between the donor and acceptor units. All the derivatives have good electron donor properties, as determined by cyclic voltammetry measurements, and they can also be reversibly reduced thanks to the presence of the BTD moiety. UV-visible spectroscopy and photophysical investigations show the presence of an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) band and an emission band originating from the charge transfer. Both the absorption and the emission are modulated by the substitution scheme and the insertion of the acetylenic bridge.
  • On the Role of Ligand-Field States for the Photophysical Properties of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes
    Q. Sun, S. Mosquera-Vazquez, Y. Suffren, J. Hankache, N. Amstutz, L.M. Lawson Daku, E. Vauthey and A. Hauser
    Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 282-283 (2015), p87-99
    DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2014.07.004 | unige:42120 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
The role of ligand-field states for the photophysical properties of d6 systems has been discussed in a large number of publications over the past decades. Since the seminal paper by Houten and Watts, for instance, the quenching of the 3MLCT luminescence in ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes is attributed to the presence of the first excited ligand-field state, namely a component of the 3T1(t2g5eg1) state, at similar energies. If this state lies above the 3MLCT state, the luminescence is quenched via thermal population at elevated temperatures only. If it lies well below, then the luminescence is quenched down to cryogenic temperatures. In this contribution we present transient absorption spectra on non-luminescent ruthenium polypyridyl complexes such as [Ru(m-bpy)3]2+, m-bpy = 6-methyl-2,2’-bipyridine, in acetonitrile at room temperature, which reveal an ultra-rapid depopulation of the 3MLCT state but a much slower ground state recovery. We propose that in this and related complexes the methyl groups force longer metal-ligand bond lengths, thus resulting in a lowering of the ligand-field strength such that the 3dd state drops to below the 3MLCT state, and that furthermore the population of this state from the 3MLCT state occurs faster than its decay to the ground state. In addition we demonstrate that in this complex the luminescence can be switched on by external pressure, which we attribute to a destabilisation of the ligand-field state by the pressure due to its larger molecular volume compared to the ground state as well as the 3MLCT state.



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