The spin transition of the [Co(terpy)2]2+ complex (terpy = 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine) is analysed based on experimental data from optical spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The single crystal absorption spectrum of [Co(terpy)2](ClO4)2 shows an asymmetric absorption band at 14 400 cm−1 with an intensity typical for a spin-allowed d–d transition and a temperature behaviour typical for a thermal spin transition. The single crystal absorption spectra of suggest that in this compound, the complex is essentially in the high-spin state at all temperatures. However, the increase in intensity observed in the region of the low-spin MLCT transition with increasing temperature implies an unusual partial thermal population of the low-spin state of up to about 10% at room temperature. Finally, high-spin → low-spin relaxation curves following pulsed laser excitation for [Co(terpy)2](ClO4)2 dispersed in KBr discs, and as a comparison for the closely related [Co(4-terpyridone)2](ClO4)2 spin-crossover compound are given.
Whereas there are hundreds of known iron(II) spin-crossover compounds, only a handful of cobalt(II) spin-crossover compounds have been discovered to date, and hardly an in depth study on any of them exists. This review begins with an introduction into the theoretical aspects to be considered when discussing spin-crossover compounds in general and cobalt(II) systems in particular. It is followed by case studies on [Co(bpy)3]2+ and [Co(terpy)2]2+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, terpy = 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine) presenting and discussing results from magnetic susceptibility measurements, X-ray crystallography, optical spectroscopy, and EPR spectroscopy.
  • Density-functional theory investigation of the geometric, energetic and optical properties of the cobalt(II)tris(2,2'-bipyridine) complex in the high-spin and in the Jahn-Teller active low-spin state
    A. Vargas, M. Zerara, E. Krausz, A. Hauser and L.M. Lawson Daku
    Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2 (2006), p1342-1359
    DOI:10.1021/ct6001384 | unige:3638 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
State-of-the-art generalized gradient approximation (GGA) (PBE, OPBE, RPBE, OLYP, and HCTH), meta-GGA (VSXC and TPSS), and hybrid (B3LYP, B3LYP*, O3LYP, and PBE0) functionals are compared for the determination of the structure and the energetics of the D3 [Co(bpy)3]2+ complex in the 4A2 and 4E trigonal components of the high-spin 4T1g( t52g e2g ) state and in the low-spin 2E state of octahedral 2Eg( t62g e1g) parentage. Their comparison extends also to the investigation of the Jahn−Teller instability of the 2E state through the characterization of the extrema of C2 symmetry of this spin state's potential energy surface. The results obtained for [Co(bpy)3]2+ in either spin manifold are very consistent among the functionals used and are in good agreement with available experimental data. The functionals, however, perform very differently with respect to the spin-state energetics because the calculated values of the high-spin/low-spin energy difference ΔEelHL vary between −3212 and 3919 cm-1. Semilocal functionals tend to give too large ΔEelHL values and thus fail to correctly predict the high-spin state as the ground state of the isolated complex, while hybrid functionals tend to overestimate the stability of the high-spin state with respect to the low-spin state. Reliable results are, however, obtained with the OLYP, HCTH, B3LYP*, and O3LYP functionals which perform best for the description of the isolated complex. The optical properties of [Co(bpy)3]2+ in the two spin states are also analyzed on the basis of electronic excitation calculations performed within time-dependent density functional response theory. The calculated absorption and circular dichroism spectra agree well with experimental results.
  • Cobalt(II)-tris-2,2'-bipyridine as a Spin-Crossover Complex: Evidence for Cooperative Effects in Three-Dimensional Oxalate Networks
    M. Zerara and A. Hauser
    ChemPhysChem, 5 (3) (2004), p395-399
    DOI:10.1002/cphc.200301044 | unige:3257 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
In the three-dimensional oxalate network structures of composition [CoxMII1-x(bpy)3][MICr(ox)3], the spin state of the [Cox(bpy)3]2+ complex can be tuned by means of chemical pressure. With MI=Na it is a classic high-spin complex. Substitution of Na by Li stabilises the complex and it becomes a spin-crossover complex. Dilution with MII=Fe reinforces this effect, and MII=Zn reverses it.
  • Fine tuning the electronic properties of [M(bpy)3]2+ complexes by chemical pressure (M = Fe2+, Ru2+, Co2+, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine)
    A. Hauser, N. Amstutz, S. Delahaye, S. Schenker, A. Sadki, R. Sieber and M. Zerara
    in "Structure and Bonding" (ed. Th. Schnherr), Springer, Berlin, 106 (2003), p81
  • Chemical pressure
    A. Hauser, N. Amstutz, S. Delahaye, A. Sadki, S. Schenker, R. Sieber and M. Zerara
    Chimia, 56 (12) (2002), p685-689
    DOI:10.2533/000942902777679858 | unige:3691 | Abstract | Article PDF
The physical and photophysical properties of three classic transition metal complexes, namely [Fe(bpy)3]2+, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, and [Co(bpy)3]2+, can be tuned by doping them into a variety of inert crystalline host lattices. The underlying guest-host interactions are discussed in terms of a chemical pressure.



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