• Ruthenium(II) Coordination Chemistry of a Fused Donor-Acceptor Ligand: Synthesis, Characterization and Photoinduced Electron Transfer Reactions of [{Ru(bpy)2}n(TTF-ppb)](PF6)2n (n = 1, 2)
    C. Goze, N. Dupont, E. Beitler, C. Leiggener, H. Jia, P. Monbaron, S.-X. Liu, A. Neels, A. Hauser and S. Decurtins
    Inorganic Chemistry, 47 (23) (2008), p11010-11017
    DOI:10.1021/ic801252t | unige:3564 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
 
A π-extended, redox-active bridging ligand 4′,5′-bis(propylthio)tetrathiafulvenyl[i]dipyrido[2,3-a:3′,2′-c]phenazine (L) was prepared via direct Schiff-base condensation of the corresponding diamine−tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) precursor with 4,7-phenanthroline-5,6-dione. Reactions of L with [Ru(bpy)2Cl2] afforded its stable mono- and dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes 1 and 2. They have been fully characterized, and their photophysical and electrochemical properties are reported together with those of [Ru(bpy)2(ppb)]2+ and [Ru(bpy)2(μ-ppb)Ru(bpy)2]4+ (ppb = dipyrido[2,3-a:3′,2′-c]phenazine) for comparison. In all cases, the first excited state corresponds to an intramolecular TTF → ppb charge-transfer state. Both ruthenium(II) complexes show two strong and well-separated metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorption bands, whereas the 3MLCT luminescence is strongly quenched via electron transfer from the TTF subunit. Clearly, the transient absorption spectra illustrate the role of the TTF fragment as an electron donor, which induces a triplet intraligand charge-transfer state (3ILCT) with lifetimes of approximately 200 and 50 ns for mono- and dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes, respectively.
  • Synthesis of new ethynylbipyridine-linked mono- and bis-tetrathiafulvalenes: electrochemical, spectroscopic, and Ru(II)-binding studies
    C. Goze, S.-X. Liu, C. Leiggener, L. Sanguinet, E. Levillain, A. Hauser and S. Decurtins
    Tetrahedron, 64 (7) (2008), p1345-1350
    DOI:10.1016/j.tet.2007.11.056 | unige:32 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
Two new ethynylbipyridine-linked mono- and bis-tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives, together with a Ru(II) complex, were synthesized using Sonogashira coupling reactions and characterized by UV/vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. They display a clear electrochemically amphoteric behavior consisting of two reversible single-electron oxidation waves (typical for TTF derivatives) and one reversible single-electron reduction wave (bpy) and act as donor–acceptor (D–A) systems. Furthermore, for the Ru(II) complex, a quite intense fluorescence originating from the 3MLCT state is observed.
  
  • Dual Luminescence and Long-lived Charge Separated states in Donor-Acceptor Assemblies based on Tetrathiafulvalene Fused Ruthenium(II)-Polypyridine Complexes
    C. Leiggener, N. Dupont, S.-X. Liu, C. Goze, S. Decurtins, E. Breitler and A. Hauser
    Chimia, 61 (10) (2007), p621-625
    DOI:10.2533/chimia.2007.621 | unige:3580 | Abstract | Article PDF
The creation of long-lived charge-separated states in donor-acceptor assemblies has been the goal of many studies aimed at mimicking the primary processes in photosynthesis. Here we present such assemblies based on tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as electron donor and a dipyridophenazine (dppz) unit as electron acceptor in the form of a fused ligand (TTF-dppz) coordinated to ruthenium(II) via the dipyrido coordination site and with 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) as auxiliary ligand, namely [Ru(bpy)3−x(TTF-dppz)x]2+ (x = 1−3). For x = 2, irradiation into the metal to dppz charge transfer transition results in electron transfer from TTF to ruthenium, thus creating a charge-separated state best described by [(TTF+-dppz)Ru(dppz-TTF)(bpy)]2+ with a lifetime of 2.5 μs in dichloromethane.
  • Photoinduced Energy Transfer Processes within Dyads of Metallophthalocyanines Compactly Fused to a Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Chromophore
    M. Haas, S.-X. Liu, A. Kahnt, C. Leiggener, D.M. Guldi, A. Hauser and S. Decurtins
    Journal of Organic Chemistry, 72 (20) (2007), p7533-7543
    DOI:10.1021/jo0710477 | unige:3188 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
An unsymmetric, peripherally octasubstituted phthalocyanine (Pc) 1, which contains a combination of dipyrido[3,2-f:2‘,3‘-h] quinoxaline and 3,5-di-tert-butylphenoxy substituents, has been obtained via a statistical condensation reaction of two corresponding phthalonitriles. Synthetic procedures for the selective metalation of the macrocyclic cavity and the periphery of 1 were developed, leading to the preparation of the key precursor metallophthalocyanines 35 in good yields. Two different strategies were applied to the synthesis of compact dyads MPc−Ru(II) 68 (M = Mg(II), Co(II), Zn(II)). Intramolecular electronic interactions in these dyads were studied by absorption, emission, and transient absorption spectroscopy. Upon photoexcitation, these dyads exhibit efficient intramolecular energy transfer from the Ru(II) chromophore to the MPc moiety.
  • Fused Donor–Acceptor Ligands in RuII Chemistry: Synthesis, Electrochemistry and Spectroscopy of [Ru(bpy)3-n(TTF-dppz)n](PF6)2
    C. Goze, C. Leiggener, S.-X. Liu, L. Sanguinet, E. Levillain, A. Hauser and S. Decurtins
    ChemPhysChem, 8 (2007), p1504-1512
    DOI:10.1002/cphc.200700066 | unige:3192 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
Three ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes of general formula [Ru(bpy)3-n(TTF-dppz)n](PF6)2 (n=1-3, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine), with one, two or three redox-active TTF-dppz (4',5'-bis(propylthio)tetrathiafulvenyl[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) ligands, were synthesised and fully characterised. Their electrochemical and photophysical properties are reported together with those of the reference compounds [Ru(bpy)3](PF6)2, [Ru(dppz)3](PF6)2 and [Ru(bpy)2(dppz)](PF6)2 and the free TTF-dppz ligand. All three complexes show intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) fluorescence of the TTF-dppz ligand. Remarkably, the complex with n=1 exhibits luminescence from the Ru2+dppz metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (3MLCT) state, whereas for the other two complexes, a radiationless pathway via electron transfer from a second TTF-dppz ligand quenches the 3MLCT luminescence. The TTF fragments as electron donors thus induce a ligand-to-ligand charge-separated (LLCS) state of the form TTF-dppz--Ru2+→ -dppz-TTF+. The lifetime of this LLCS state is approximately 2.3 μs, which is four orders of magnitude longer than that of 0.4 ns for the ILCT state, because recombination of charges on two different ligands is substantially slower.
  • An Experimental and Computational Study on Intramolecular Charge Transfer: A Tetrathiafulvalene Fused Dipyridophenazine Molecule
    C. Jia, S.-X. Liu, C. Tanner, C. Leiggener, A. Neels, L. Sanguinet, E. Levillain, S. Leutwyler, A. Hauser and S. Decurtins
    Chemistry - A European Journal, 13 (13) (2007), p3804-3812
    DOI:10.1002/chem.200601561 | unige:3597 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
 
To study the electronic interactions in donor-acceptor (D-A) ensembles, D and A fragments are coupled in a single molecule. Specifically, a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)-fused dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) compound having inherent redox centers has been synthesized and structurally characterized. Its electronic absorption, fluorescence emission, photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer, and electrochemical behavior have been investigated. The observed electronic properties are explained on the basis of density functional theory.
  • Preparation and characterization of 3-(4,5-ethylenedithio-1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)naphthopyranone: a luminescent redox-active donor–acceptor compound
    S. Dolder, S.-X. Liu, X. Gugano, M. Atanasov, C.A. Daul, C. Leiggener, A. Hauser, A. Neels and S. Decurtins
    Tetrahedron, 62 (48) (2006), p11106-11111
    DOI:10.1016/j.tet.2006.09.032 | unige:3295 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
A new 1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene substituted naphthopyranone 2 has been synthesized and characterized. UV–vis spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetry results, interpreted on the basis of density functional theory, show that 2 displays an intramolecular charge-transfer transition and acts like a donor–acceptor (D–A) system. Furthermore, a weak fluorescence originating from the excited charge-transfer state is observed.
  • A redox-active tri star molecule: merging of TTF and HAT chemistry
    C. Jia, S.-X. Liu, C. Tanner, C. Leiggener, L. Sanguinet, E. Levillain, S. Leutwyler, A. Hauser and S. Decurtins
    ChemComm, (17) (2006), p1878-1880
    DOI:10.1039/b601173j | unige:3307 | Abstract | Article HTML | Article PDF
A planar π-conjugated heteroaromatic molecule 1 has been synthesized and fully characterized; it combines two characteristics, a charge-transfer transition originating from its inherent donor–acceptor nature in its neutral state and an intervalence charge-transfer transition in its 12+ mixed-valence state.

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